However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought.
Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement.
Lieutenant William Dawes produced a town plan in 1790 but it was ignored by the colony's leaders.
Captain Philip led the First Fleet of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water.
He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. Phillip described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world".
The location is serviced by many buses from the city and surrounding suburbs.
For those looking for the challenge of riding a century, this route takes in the best of the City along the Sydney City Ride route before taking riders through the Inner West, Parramatta, Prospect Dam, Western Sydney Parklands and into Sydney Olympic Park.
It was not until 1788 when the First Fleet, which contained convicts and was led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in Botany Bay to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia.