One of the basic premises of Clover's theory is that audience identification is unstable and fluid across gender lines, particularly in the case of the slasher film.
During the final girl's confrontation with the killer, Clover argues, she becomes masculinized through "phallic appropriation" by taking up a weapon, such as a knife or chainsaw, against the killer.
Derek Soles argues that the tragic destiny of such final girls represents an expression of patriarchal society where capable, independent women must by be contained or destroyed.
In more recent films, this has started to change, with the final girl no longer being always doomed, a notable example being the Scream series.
Another trope of slashers (particularly in the 1980s) is "death by sex", where sex scenes are shortly followed by violence, with the participants being murdered in gruesome ways.